The responses and actions on COVID-19

Fatema Miah ||
On Friday 17th, there were global confirmed cases of COVID-19, 2,188,194  and 147,632 deaths (JHU). In the UK there were confirmed cases COVID-19, 108,692 and 14,576 deaths (DHSC).  And reported that the UK Government launched today UK coronavirus vaccine taskforce led by Downing Street’s chief scientific adviser. On the 16th it was reported, Downing Street launched investigation on the disproportionate high rate of ethnic minority COVID -19 cases and deaths in the UK.  The UK needs to prepare for further waves of coronavirus, leading physician told MPs. And Roche develops new coronavirus antibody test with the aim to launch in UK next month.
Academics now shedding light on mental health and addressing psychosocial support are important parts of emergency planning and response measures in outbreak. The positive messages promoting community responsibility, can reduce anxiety arising from loss of control. Targeted messages for those experiencing mental health problems can also be offered as mental health and psychosocial aspects of the outbreak.  The World Health Organisation isn’t solely responsible for the actions dealing with COVID-19. Governments of different states are taking actions according to their understanding of the pandemic. Governments introduced new fiscal measures such as cutting interest rates, providing subsidies to employers, to help reduce the financial strain caused by the outbreak.  Public volunteering support system and charity has been set up in places supporting communities.
Information sharing between countries is also important with immediate notification of new cases to all member states. There is also a need for sharing of materials, including guidance, standard operating procedures, scientific outputs, and research protocols. Now, let’s look at what we just described in the context of China’s experience. Early in January 2020, with the city of Wuhan as the epicentre of the outbreak, focus was on containment measures. At that time, China rapidly set up a national multispectral response coordinated at highest level. Cases rapidly increased, efforts on containing and mitigating the outbreak were done through extraordinary response measures, including extreme social distancing measures such as quarantining cities and cluster containment in other provinces. National measures were put in place to limit population movement, such as controlling of transportation hubs and school closures. At the time of recording, the number of cases has started to decrease and stabilise in China. The focus now is on ensuring social economic recovery while maintaining and strengthening response activities and tailor those to each specific area. In addition, a comprehensive research programme was put in place to inform both national and international response efforts.
Responses have been described as perhaps most ambitious, agile, and aggressive disease containment effort in history in a report of a recent joint WHO and China mission on coronavirus. China’s interventions, however, may not be replicable in other settings, in particular the resources for such interventions may be difficult to find where public health and health infrastructure is limited. In more fragile settings, the burden of disease may be high as both surveillance and response capacity is limited and populations may be more vulnerable to severe disease. The global coordination and communication at all levels is essential in this situation.
International coordination is crucial and there is an important role for the World Health Organisation, the United Nations, and other international organisations.
Information sharing between countries is also important with immediate notification of new cases to all member states through the focal points for the international health regulations. Also sharing of materials, including guidance, standard operating procedures, scientific outputs, and research protocols is needed.  Early in January 2020, with the city of Wuhan as the epicentre of the outbreak, focus was on containment measures. At that time, China rapidly set up a national multispectral response coordinated at highest level.
The World Health Organisation advocate the use of the SBAR structured referral tool, which is Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation.  Firstly, you should describe the situation you’re in. You should identify who you are and where you’re calling from. You should identify the patient and the relevant identifiers, including their date of birth and where they are in the hospital. You should say, “I need you– I’m in a situation; I need you to come and help with this patient”. From a background point of view, you should start by giving a short summary of why the patient is in hospital for, as an example, they were admitted two days ago with a community-acquired pneumonia.
At this point, you should also explain the patient’s past medical history, and if you can, give some information about their relevant functional status. And that’s particularly important in critical care referrals, when we’re thinking about the appropriateness of escalation of care. From an assessment point of view, you want to give the patient’s observations, so their respiratory, their blood pressure, their saturations, and their level of consciousness, along with any other relevant observations, including BMs. And you might want to say any treatment that you’ve introduced at that point, so “I’ve placed the patient on 15 litres of oxygen.” Or if you’ve clearly identified what the issue is, say that. Say, I think the problem is acute pulmonary oedema.

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